Stud welding is a technique similar to flash welding where a fastener or specially formed nut is welded onto another metal part, typically a base metal or substrate.
A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.
cold-formed steel (CFS) is the common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperatures (cold working). Cold-formed steel goods are created by the working of steel billet, bar, or sheet using stamping, rolling (including roll forming), or presses to deform it into a usable product.
Astandoffis a threaded separator of defined length used to raise one assembly above another. They are usually round or hex (for wrench tightening), often made of aluminum, brass, or nylon, and come in male-female or female-female forms. In electronics they are frequently used to raise aprinted-circuit boardabove a surface. Insulating standoffs keep two parts from touching each other, thereby preventing electrical shorts. When used to fasten cable connectors (i.e. "D" connectors) together, they are called "jack screws".
In contrast, aspaceris an unthstandoffs for arduinoreaded piece of tubing which lets the entire bolt pass through. Since they cannot be tightened, they are usually round.
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